- absolute micron retention
( See Micronic Filter Cloth )
In both types of dutch weave the sum derived from multiplying the number of weft wires
in a given measurement by their diameter, results, in theory, in a specification with no
open space. Because the wires are driven together during the weaving process, the aperture
size cannot be calculated in the normal manner.
There are two methods by which the aperture size can be determined: bubble point
testing and glass bead testing.
See-"bubble point test"
See-"glass bead test"
- ACS ( See
American Chemical Society )
American Chemical Society.
- AICHE ( See
American Institute of Chemical Engineers
American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
- AIME (See
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical
and Petroleum Engineers )
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers.
- angle insert
Steel (or Stainless Steel) angular shape welded or otherwise fastened to a screens
formed tensioning hook for reinforcing purposes.
A heat-treating process in which the steel is heated to some elevated temperature,
usually at or near the critical range and held at this temperature for a period of time,
then cooled, usually at a slow rate.
Annealing is employed (1) to soften steel for secondary machining or forming processes;
(2) to alter ductility, toughness, electrical or magnetic characteristics or other
physical properties; (3) to refine the crystal structure; (4) to produce grain
reorientation; or (5) to relieve stresses and hardness resulting from weaving (cold
- annealed after
Wire cloth or wire mesh which is annealed after the
- annealed before
- annealed wire
Wire which has been cold-drawn to reduce its diameter is often annealed to reduce
strength and increase elongation to facilitate weaving.
- ANSI (See
American National Standards Institute )
American National Standards Institute.
- aperture (
See Aperture Formulas )
The clear opening between wires on a wire mesh screening surface.
- API (See
American Petroleum Institute )
American Petroleum Institute.
- ARI (See
Refrigeration Institute )
Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute.
- ASHRAE (See
American Society for Heating,
Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineering Foundation )
American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineering
- ASME ( See
American Society of Mechanical Engineers )
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
- ASTM ( See
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Society for Testing and Materials.
- AWCI ( See
American Wire Cloth Institute
American Wire Cloth Institute.
American Standard Wire Gauge.
- AWS (See
American Welding Society )
American Welding Society.
- backing cloth
Wire mesh or wire cloth which is utilized to provide support for a screen surface.
- backing screen
Wire mesh or wire cloth fabricated with or otherwise fastened to (from below) the
primary screen surface.
- ball screen
Wire mesh or wire cloth screen placed below the primary screen surface to retain rubber
or steel balls or plastic discs which are set in motion by a vibrating screen deck.
Ball screens are utilized to reduce or prevent blinding or plugging.
The material utilized for screen edge (hook) reinforcing. Bands are available in steel,
galvanized steel and stainless steel.
Receptacle on a shale shaker which contains the deck which the screens are mounted
A test for determining relative ductility of wire that is to be formed, and for
determining soundness and toughness of wire. The specimen is usually bent over a specified
diameter through a specified angle for a specified number of cycles.
- Bird Screen
Wire mesh or wire cloth suitable for small animal and bird retention or exclusion. The
specification is typically 2 mesh, with wire diameters ranging from 0.041" to
0.080" available in aluminum, brass, copper, galvanized steel or stainless steel.
Filling in and clogging of the wire mesh openings (apertures) due to particle
entrapment of the process material. The wire cloth becomes "blind" to the
Abbreviation for "Broad Mesh Twilled Dutch Weave".
A group of industrial wire cloth specifications, woven in very smooth and durable
stainless steel or monel in a plain square mesh pattern. Wire diameter is lighter than
"mill grade", allowing a high percentage of open area. Bolting cloth is used for
wet or dry sifting and separating.
bran duster cloth
Plain weave steel wire cloth of medium mesh sizes produced in market grade diameters.
Available in in roll widths of 24", 30", 36" and 48" for use in flour
In broad mesh specifications the warp wire is typically smaller in diameter than the
- brush cloth
See-"rice wire cloth".
- bubble point test
( See Micronic Filter Cloth )
The pressure required to pass air bubbles through the mesh (covered by a test liquid)
is measured. The average aperture size is then calculated by taking into account surface
tension, liquid density, temperature and immersion depth.
See- "absolute micron retention"
See- "glass bead test"
- buffer strip
See-"crown bar cover".
- bunched wire
Birmingham Wire Gauge.
- calendered wire cloth
Wire cloth that has been passed through a set of heavy rollers to reduce the thickness
of the cloth or to flatten the wires at weave intersections providing a smooth surface.
- Caul Screen
A general specification for woven wire screen panels utilized in the production of
Oriented Strand Board (OSB), Particleboard and Wafer Board.
- chain saw spark arrester screen
Stainless steel wire cloth having a 0.022" aperture (26 mesh, 0.016" wire
dia.) as approved by the National Park Bureau (U.S.A) for use on chain saws.
- channel cover
See-"crown bar cover".
- chicken wire
See- "poultry netting".
- clear opening
The space (aperture) between adjacent parallel wires.
- coarse mesh (See
Market Grade or
Mill Grade )
Wire cloth having a mesh count of 30 x 30 or less.
To stamp wire cloth in order to impart a shape or compact it. Wire mesh filter discs
are often coined around the edges, locking the wires together to prevent unraveling.
- confinement mesh
Wire mesh in a flat-top weave with a high percentage of open area, utilized for
livestock flooring. May be produced using galvanized wire or in steel and then galvanized
- corduroy filter cloth
(See Micronic Filter Cloth )
See-"dutch wire cloth".
- corrosion (See
Corrosion Resistance Chart
or Stainless Steel Corrosion
The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its
The number of openings (apertures) in a lineal inch.
A smooth contoured indentation formed into wire providing a locking arrangement for
perpendicular wires to stabilize the hole size and shape.
An arc placed in woven wire mesh (screen cloth) to facilitate tensioning across a
- crown bar cover
A protective sleeve of rubber or polyurethane, contoured to the shape of a vibrating
screen decks support rails (stringers) on the bottom surface and provided with a
"crown" shape on the top surface to prevent direct contact between the screen
and the supporting surface and help facilitate tensioning of the wire cloth.
Crown bar cover is also referred to as "bucker-up strips", "buffer
strips", "c-b-c", "channel cover" and "channel rubber".
Edge preparation (hook strip) that is shorter than the screen cloth to allow a
lap-joint of the screen cloth panel in conjunction with a butt-joint of the edge
preparation, thus preventing leakage between screen panel sections.
- delinter screen
Galvanized 8 x 8 mesh, using 0.032" diameter wire, used to polish lint from
Separation of solids from liquids in which the solids are retained on the screen
surface while the liquids pass through the screen (wire mesh or wire cloth) surface.
- diamond mesh
Wire mesh woven into a diamond pattern, typically in a 1-1/2" opening with an
intermediate crimp weave. Used for grilles, window or machinery guarding.
- DIN (See
Institute for Standardization )
German Institute for Standardization.
double crimp weave
See- "double weave".
- double crown
Two arcs placed in a screen panel to conform with double contoured crown rails on a
vibrating screen deck, allowing for fastening (tie-down) in the center of the screen
- double shoot
Frequently used in "slotted openings" to increase wire cloth strength and
durability. Two shoot wires are placed in adjacent crimps on each end of the long slot.
Also referred to as "double bar", "double shot", or "double
- double weave
Wire cloth with equal depth crimps in both warp and shute wires, thus locking the wires
in position. Also referred to as "double crimp", "over and under" or
Reducing the cross section of wire by pulling it through a die.
- DTW ( See
Micronic Filter Cloth )
Abbreviation for "Dutch Twilled Weave".
The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing, being measured by
elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test, or by other means.
- Duplex Weave
This specification is similar to a Plain Dutch Weave except that two warp wires are
used, rather than one.
- Dutch Weave (See
Micronic Filter Cloth )
Wire mesh or filter cloth with warp wires larger than the shute wires. Warp wires
remain straight while adjacent shute wires slightly overlap, resulting in a dense, strong
material with small irregular, twisting passages that appear triangular in shape when
viewing the material diagonally.
Dutch weaves have much lower flow rates and much higher particle retention than plain
See - "Hollander Weave"
An electrical plating process that results in a thin evenly distributed coating of zinc
over all exposed carbon steel wire surfaces.
Recommended for 8 mesh and higher mesh counts where hot dip galvanizing is not suitable
In tensile testing, the increase in the gage length, measured after fracture of the
specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gage
- end tension screens
Edge preparation on a screening surface allowing it to be stretched in the direction of
- end tension wire cloth
Typically required for long slotted apertures, wire cloth that is tensioned from one or
both ends in the direction of material flow, as opposed to side-to-side tensioning
- fanning mill cloth
Wire cloth used for sizing and grading many types of beans, peas, seeds and for
separation of light weight dry materials.
- feather edges
Straight wire ends protruding around the perimeter of a screen cloth section which are
not crimped, all in the same plane.
- ferrous alloys
Alloys or metals containing iron.
- fill wires
Wires running across the width or short way of wire cloth as woven, also referred to as
"shute", "shoot", "shot" and "weft" wires.
A device utilizing filter media for particle retention for clarification of a liquid or
Wire or synthetic cloth woven with a greater number of wires in one direction than the
other, and utilizing two different wire diameters. Filter cloth is woven in both plain and
twill weave patterns. Also referred to as "Dutch Weave".
The process of clarifying a fluid or gaseous liquid by the removal (retention) of solid
- fine mesh
Wire cloth having a mesh count greater than 90 x 90.
- flat bar fill
A flat wire bar woven into a triple shoot screen, replacing the middle shute wire,
providing additional strength.
- flat top weave
A weave with all crimps protruding from the bottom screen surface, resulting in a
smooth, flat screening surface. Also referred to as "smooth top".
The effect created when the screen surface is unable to pass fluids through, in wet
screening operations such as washing or dewatering., a result of blinding.
- fly screen
An edge preparation on the screen surface sides parallel to the direction of flow,
allowing the screen to be fastened securely to the supporting surface, typically in
To coat iron or steel with zinc, primarily to prevent rust.
Wire cloth (wire mesh) woven of plain steel that has been passed through a pickling
process before being dipped into a hot zinc galvanizing bath.
This process should not be utilized for mesh counts greater than 8 mesh as smaller
openings tend to blind, reducing the cloth open area.
- galvanized before
Wire cloth (wire mesh) woven of high grade steel wire that has been zinc coated
(galvanized) before the weaving process.
A term referring to the measure of wire diameter. The Washburn & Moen Gauge is the
standard in the manufacture of wire cloth in North America
- glass bead test
( See Micronic Filter Cloth )
A suspension containing glass beads is passed through the mesh - the diameter of the
largest bead passing through is considered as the absolute micron retention.
See - "bubble point test"
The process where all acceptable material is diverted from the primary crusher to
reduce load and prevent unnecessary wear on the crusher.
- Grizzly Screen
Heavy screen cloth usually having a large opening size and made from large diameter
high carbon or oil tempered wire or rod.
- hard wire
Wire which has been drawn down to a smaller diameter after the annealing process,
increasing its unit strength and reducing its elongation.
A square mesh, general purpose galvanized-after plain weave wire cloth.. Made in one
wire size only, one for each of several standard meshes.
Hardware Cloth is also available in welded construction.
- Harp Screen
Screen cloth with long slots, typically 12 inches or longer, for screening high volume
tonnage containing a large amount of fines.
- heated deck
A screen surface that is heated by using the screen cloth as the heating element.
Stainless steel is the preferred material due to its low conductivity.
- herringbone twill
Wire cloth (wire mesh) in which the direction of a twilled weave is reversed at regular
intervals to produce a striped or herringbone effect.
- Hollander Weave
( See Micronic Filter Cloth )
A description applied to woven wire cloth where the diameter of the warp and weft
wires, and the mesh count in the warp and weft directions, are different. The wires are
driven up much closer during the weaving process, thus producing a more densely compacted
weave with small aperture sizes, without reducing the overall cloth thickness. Also
referred to as "Dutch Weave".
See - "formed edge".
- HPW ( See
Micronic Filter Cloth )
Hollander Plain Weave.
- HTW ( See
Micronic Filter Cloth )
Hollander Twill Weave.
A liquid-solids separation device utilizing centrifugal force for settling.
Inside clamping width.
- insect cloth
Plain weave mesh wire screen cloth, typically 18 x 16 or 18 x 14 mesh, available in
aluminum, bronze, fiberglass, galvanized or stainless steel wire. Also referred to as
- inside dimension
(ID) The distance measured between the inner edges of a formed screen panel. Also
referred to as "ICW".
See - "intermediate crimp".
Wire cloth (wire mesh) with extra crimps in warp and shoot (weft) wires between wire
- ISO (See
The International Organization for
The International Organization for Standardization is a worldwide federation of
national standards bodies (ISO member bodies).
ISO 4782 standard governs metal wire for industrial wire screens and woven wire cloth.
ISO 9044 standard governs industrial wire cloth.
The International Wire Weavers Association.
- Jaw Crusher
The type of crusher which breaks material by squeezing it between two jaw plates, one
stationary and one movable.
- KPZ ( See
Micronic Filter Cloth )
Reverse Hollander Twill Weave.
- Livestock Flooring
See - "confinement mesh".
- lock crimp
See -"scalp weave".
- long slot
See - "slotted openings".
- Market Grade
A group of industrial wire cloth specifications suitable for general purpose screening
applications, made of high strength square mesh cloth, available in several types of
material. The wire diameters are moderately larger than "mill grade" , with a
lower percentage of open area.
- Mechanical Properties
The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force
is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical applications; for example,
modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and fatigue limit.
- medium mesh
Wire cloth having a mesh count of 30 x 30 to 90 x 90 inclusive.
- mesh no.
This generally denotes the number of apertures in a length of 25.4mm (1"). While
it is considered an obsolete designation, it is used extensively.
Mesh designates the number of openings and fractional parts of an opening, per lineal
inch. Mesh is determined by counting the number of openings from the center of any wire to
the center of a parallel wire, one inch in distance.
When the point one inch distant from the center of a wire falls between wires within an
opening, the mesh count is expressed as a fraction.
One micron is equivalent to 0.001mm or 0.00003937 inches. The micron is the unit of
measure in the metric system. It is frequently used when referring to the aperture size or
particle-retention of filter cloth.
Micron retention is defined as the diameter of the largest round particles which can
pass through a filter.
- Micronic grades
Finer mesh range of Dutch Weave cloth in meshes giving retentions of 50 microns or
- Mill Grade
Group of industrial wire cloth specifications with lighter wire diameters than
"market grade". Standard wire diameters of this grade produce a medium
percentage of open area.
- Mud Screen
A wire cloth screen panel fitted with hooks for tensioning installed on shale shakers.
- nonferrous alloys
Non-pure metals containing no iron, such as copper, brass, aluminum, etc.
See - "cut-back".
Outside clamping width.
Fall-off or excess wire screen material cut from a standard roll, in the slitting or
- off count
A mesh which has a greater number of wires per inch in one direction, usually the warp
- open area
The ratio of open space area between the wires, to the total area of a given section of
wire cloth, expressed as a percentage.
The dimension between adjacent parallel wires, usually expressed in decimal parts of an
See - "aperture"
See - "space"
- outside clamping width
Outside dimension (overall) of hooked edges on a screen panel. Also referred to as
Most original equipment manufacturers recommend an OCW of 1" less than the clear
clamping width between the vibrator side plates.
- outside dimension
The distance between the outside edges of a formed screen panel.
A minute portion, piece, or amount.
The particle size that will be retained by a given mesh, usually expressed in microns.
- Physical Properties
The properties, other than mechanical properties, that pertain to the physics of a
material; for example, density, electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, thermal
The distance between centers of two adjacent wires in millimeters.
- pitting corrosion
Localized corrosion resulting in small pits or craters in a metal surface.
- Plain Weave
Woven wire cloth in which each warp and each weft wire passes over one and under the
next adjacent wire in both directions.
Plain Dutch Weave
Dutch weave with each warp and shoot wire passing alternately over and under each
Near size particles trapped in screen apertures (openings) preventing passage of under
See - "blinding"
The fractional void volume of the mesh.
Light-weight hex shaped netting, usually manufactured from galvanized wire.
- pre-crimped weave
Wire cloth (wire mesh) woven with warp and/or shoot wires crimped before weaving.
- pressing cloth
Off-count mesh utilized in commercial clothing press (ironing) machines to aid in heat
distribution. Typical meshes include 50 x 40, 60 x 50 and 64 x 56.
- profile wire
Wire that has been drawn into a "wedge" (tapered) shape, which becomes
progressively narrower from top to bottom.
- Profile Screen
A screen panel made up of profile wires with openings that become progressively wider
from top to bottom. This increases dewatering efficiency and aids in screening material
which might otherwise blind a screen surface. Also referred to as "wedge wire
Reverse Hollander Plain Weave.
- raw edge
The unfinished edges of wire cloth (wire mesh) running the length of the screen.
- rectangular mesh
Wire cloth having a different number of wires in the warp and shoot (shute) usually
less in the shoot, producing rectangular openings.
See - "off count".
A formed hook on the tensioning edge of a screen panel that is strengthened with the
addition of sheet metal.
See - "angle insert".
The ability of wire cloth (wire mesh), as a filter medium, to prevent the passage of
solids. It is expressed by the diameter, usually in microns, of the largest spherical
solid particle that will normally pass through the screening surface.
Abbreviation for "Reverse Plain Dutch Weave".
Reverse Plain Dutch Weave
The arrangement of the warp and shute wire is reversed as compared to Plain Dutch
Weave, providing a higher mesh count in the warp direction rather than the weft (shute)
- Rice Wire Cloth
Used for polishing rice, wire mesh made of hard-drawn wire and generally available in
12 x 14 mesh using 0.035" / 0.041" diameter wire.
- ripple flat crimp
Wire cloth in which the interlocking crimps are on the underside of the screen in
addition to shallow formed crimps that are shaped in a downward angle in relation to the
top surface. This provides a surface less resistant to material flow while increasing the
hardness of the wire.
See - "flat top weave".
The normal unit of bulk sale for wire cloth (wire mesh). The standard length is 100
feet (30.48m) +/- 10%.
- Rotary Screen
See - "trommel screen".
- Sandwich Screen
The combining of two or more non-identical wire cloth (wire mesh) screens into one set
of reinforced hooks to form one screen panel. Typically the finer mesh screen is placed
above the larger mesh or support screen.
- scalp weave
Wire cloth in which deep crimps are provided in the wires at points of wire
intersections to lock wires securely in place. Typically used for heavy-duty screening.
Also referred to as "arch crimp", "lock crimp" and
A sizing process, secondary to the grizzly where most of the material is smaller than
the screen mesh. Oversized material is rejected and sent back to the secondary crusher for
further processing and recycled.
The edge or border of wire cloth finished off so as to prevent unraveling.
Selvage types include looped, folded, cut and tucked, welded, plastic bonded or bent
- Shielding Cloth
Wire cloth (wire mesh) used for shielding radio frequency equipment and rooms.
Typically provided in pure copper or brass material.
- shute wires
The wires running the short way of, or across the cloth as woven. Also referred to as
"shoot", "shot", "fill" or "weft" wires.
- side tension
Edge preparation on a screen surface allowing it to be stretched at right angles to the
direction of material flow.
Metric openings, in a fixed ratio, assigned by the U.S. Bureau of Standards, based upon
the number 18 sieve having an opening on one millimeter (0.039370").
The relation of consecutive numbered sieves is as one to the fourth root of two (or for
every fourth sieve ratio is as one to two). Sieve numbers are arbitrary numbers and have
no direct relationship to the number of meshes per inch.
- slots 'L'
A slotted opening with the long opening running parallel to the length of the screen
panel, typically parallel with the flow of material. Also referred to as "slots
parallel" or "S.P.".
- slots right angle
Also referred to as "SRA".
See - "slot-s"
- slots 'S'
A slotted opening with the long opening running at a right angle to the length of the
screen panel, typically at a right angle to the flow of material.
- slotted openings
Wire cloth (wire mesh) with rectangular openings which allows the maximum open area and
tends to prevent blinding or plugging of material.
The warp mesh-count and wire size are indicated before the shoot (weft) mesh- count and
Hardware cloth slit to narrow widths as required, typically supplied in 4 or 8 mesh.
The actual clear opening or space between the inside edges of two parallel wires.
- Space Cloth
Square mesh wire cloth which is designated by the width of the open space between the
inside edges of two parallel wires.
- Spark Arrester
Wire mesh used to retain particles of burning materials.
- split deck
A screen deck longitudinally divided allowing two individual screen panels to be
installed across the width of the deck.
Abbreviation for "Single Plain Dutch Weave".
The formed hook on the tensioning edge of a screen panel formed in the shape of a
"U" or square, with two right angles.
- square mesh
Wire cloth with the mesh count and wire diameter the same in both directions.
- stranded weave
A twilled weave with multiple wires in both warp and the weft.
A fabricated assembly of woven wire cloth (wire mesh) designed for the removal of
foreign particles from a stream of liquid or gas.
- strainer cloth
A plain weave off-count mesh cloth with a high percentage of open area.
- support screen
A heavy wire mesh utilized to support a finer mesh in filtration or straining.
See - "backing cloth".
British Imperial Standard Wire Gauge.
Tensile Bolting Cloth
Often referred to as "TBC".
See - "Bolting Cloth".
- Tensile Strength
In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original load to original
cross-sectional area. Also called ultimate strength.
- Testing Sieve
Fabricated circular frames available in stainless steel, brass or plastic fitted with
wire mesh woven of brass, phosphor-bronze or stainless steel, having extremely accurate
openings. Sieves are produced according to various standards, in the U.S. typically per
Testing sieves are used for grading, sizing and testing by research and technical
institutions, industrial laboratories and mining engineers.
- Tinned Cloth
Wire cloth (wire mesh) woven of wire that has been coated with tin before the weaving
process. Tinned cloth is generally available in "mill grade" wire diameters.
Abbreviation for "Twilled Reverse Dutch Weave".
- triple shoot
A slotted opening wire mesh which, due to the particular application and/or slot
length, requires three shoot wires in adjacent crimps followed by the slot and repeated.
- Trommel Screen
A screen panel which is rolled to cover a cylinder, typically fastened by bolts, clamps
Woven wire cloth in which each weft wire passes successively over two and under two
warp wires and each warp wire passes successively over and under two weft wires.
Twill Dutch Weave
Each warp wire and each weft wire passes over and under the next to adjacent
complementary wires, as in a normal "twill weave", except the warp wires are
larger in diameter than the weft wires. This allows a greater mesh count in the weft
This weave pattern enables the weft wires to be woven more densely, and much smaller
aperture sizes can be achieved.
- Twin Warp
See - "Duplex Weave".
The wires running lengthways during weaving are referred to as WARP wires.
The wires that run across the width of the cloth are referred to as WEFT or shoot
- welded angle
A fabricated hook welded on the tensioning edge of a flat screen panel.
A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is square
or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges, or is round, a regular hexagon or a
regular octagon, and whose diameter or greatest perpendicular distance between parallel
faces (except for flattened wire) is less than 0.375 inch.
- wire cloth
A general term for material woven from metallic wires.
The diameter of wire before weaving.
- Yield Strength
The stress at which a material exhibits a specified permanent set.