About Copper
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  Copper is a reddish metal with a face-centered cubic crystalline structure. It reflects red and orange light and absorbs other frequencies in the visible spectrum, due to its band structure, so it as a nice reddish color. It is malleable, ductile, and an extremely good conductor of both heat and electricity. It is softer than zinc and can be polished to a bright finish. It is found in group Ib of the periodic table, together with silver and gold. Copper has low chemical reactivity. In moist air it slowly forms a greenish surface film called patina; this coating protects the metal from further attack.
  Most copper compounds will settle and be bound to either water sediment or soil particles. Soluble copper compounds form the largest threat to human health. Usually water-soluble copper compounds occur in the environment after release through application in agriculture.
  World production of copper amounts to 12 million tons a year and exploitable reserves are around 300 million tons, which are expected to last for only another 25 years. About 2 million tons a year are reclaimed by recycling. Today copper is mined as major deposits in Chile, Indonesia, USA, Australia and Canada, which together account for around 80% of the world's copper. The main ore is a yellow copper-iron sulfide called chalcopyrite (CuFeS2).
  Most copper is used for electrical equipment (60%); construction, such as roofing and plumbing (20%); industrial machinery, such as heat exchangers (15%) and alloys (5%). The main long established copper alloys are bronze, brass (a copper-zinc alloy), copper-tin-zinc, which was strong enough to make guns and cannons, and was known as gun metal, copper and nickel, known as cupronickel, which was the preferred metal for low-denomination coins.
Copper is ideal for electrical wiring because it is easily worked, can be drawn into fine wire and has a high electrical conductivity.
Antenna Circuit Reference Ground Plane
  In the field of radio telecommunication a  ground plane structure or relationship exists between the antenna and another conductive (reflective) surface which permits the antenna to function as such (e.g., forms a reflector or director for an antenna). This sometimes serves as the near-field reflection point or as a reference ground in a antenna circuit.
EMI Electromagnetic Iinterference
  Broadband interference typically results from incidental radio frequency emitters such as electrical transmission lines, electric motors, welders, thermostats and even insectzappers. Applications where electrical power is cycled on and off rapidly is a potential source.
NASA Contractors Report
  Design Guidelines for Shielding Effectiveness, Current Carrying Capability, and the Enhancement  of Conductivity of Composite Materials. Useful information when designing a Faraday cage (see below)
RFI/EMI Screen Room Shielding
  A Faraday cage (or shield) is an enclosure formed by a woven wire mesh of conducting material. Such an enclosure blocks out external static electric fields. Faraday cages are named after Michael Faraday, the inventor. External radio signals (electromagnetic radiation) through an antenna within a cage can be greatly attenuated or even completely blocked by the cage itself.
Copper in the environment
  Copper is a very common substance that occurs naturally in the environment and spreads through the environment through natural phenomena. Humans widely use copper. For instance it is applied in the industries and in agriculture. The production of copper has lifted over the last decades.  Due to this, copper quantities in the environment have increased.
  The world's copper production is still rising. This basically means that more and more copper ends up in the environment. Rivers are depositing sludge on their banks that is contaminated with copper, due to the disposal of copper-containing wastewater. Copper enters the air, mainly through release during the combustion of fossil fuels. Copper in air will remain there for an eminent period of time, before it settles when it starts to rain. It will then end up mainly in soils. As a result soils may also contain large quantities of copper after copper from the air has settled.
  Copper can be released into the environment by both natural sources and human activities. Examples of natural sources are wind-blown dust, decaying vegetation, forest fires and sea spray. A few examples of human activities that contribute to copper release have already been named. Other examples are mining, metal production, wood production and phosphate fertilizer production.
Because copper is released both naturally and through human activity it is very widespread in the environment. Copper is often found near mines, industrial settings, landfills and waste disposals.
The History Of Copper
  No one knows exactly who discovered copper. Copper is a metal which has been used by people since prehistoric times. Archaeological evidences suggest people who had lived between 5000 BC and 1,200 BC discovered copper.
Healing Powers of Copper
  A 2000-year history of the antimicrobial applications of copper metals has given rise to current efforts to determine their effectiveness in stemming infectious disease in healthcare and other public facilities. 
Copper Contact Corrosion
  Commercially Pure Copper is often effected by certain climatic conditions, air pollution, weathering, corrosion, staining, substrate, solder and sealants
American Wire Gauge Chart
  Copper AWG Chart Provides the equivalent wire diameters (Imperial and Metric), Areas, Weights and Resistance data.
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Last modified: May 29, 2017